Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Solar panel theory and working principle

Along with the tense supply of global energy, the new type of energy source solar energy reached a wide development force, the most influential one is the solar panel. The main material of solar panel is a semiconductor, using photoelectric material absorb the solar energy then generate electricity by photoelectric effect or photochemical effect. So theoretically how does the solar panel work? The solar panel is a device turning the light into electricity by photoelectric effect or photochemical effect. When the sunlight shining on the semiconductor, part of the light is reflected by the surface, the rest is absorbed or penetrate. The absorbed light, of the cause, some of them will turn to heat, the rest of them will become electron-hole pair by the collision between photons and the semiconductor component valence electron. In this way, light transformed into electrical power in the form of electron-hole pair generation.

The electrons inside the semiconductor will release after obtaining the energy of light when the sun shines on P-n junction, accordingly the electron-hole pair is generated. Under the effect of electric potential, electrons are driven to N-type region and holes is driven to P-type region, in this way, N region has surplus electrons, whereas, P region have surplus holes; consequently, the photo-generated electrical field is formed opposite to electric potential nearby the P-n junction.

If P-N junction exists inside the semiconductor,an electric potential will formed along the P-type and N-type interface,can drive the electrons to the N-type region and hole to P-type region,in this way,make surplus electrons in N-region and surplus holes in P-region,forming the opposite photo-generated electrical field in relate with the field of electric potential.

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